Posts Tagged ‘hospital of the future’

More Kaiser Permanente hospitals by architect Clarence Mayhew

posted on June 15, 2016

Lincoln Cushing
Heritage writer

 

Part one of this article covers the early Kaiser Permanente hospitals designed by Clarence Mayhew (1906-1994). Here, we conclude with the California facilities he designed and built in the latter half of his professional career before he succumbed to Parkinson’s disease.

 

SC Planning for Health, 1955-fall

Sketch of Harbor City Hospital

Harbor Hospital (Wilmington/Harbor City), 1957
Bids have been requested from a selected group of contractors for the construction of the new 66-bed Kaiser Foundation Harbor City Hospital.

It was designed by architect Clarence Mayhew as a contemporary California, one-story, “T”-shaped building to harmonize with the surrounding countryside, and will bring to the Harbor Area the newest of the Foundation’s “hospitals of the future.” The one-story building, of steel construction utilizing vast amounts of glass, is another of the Foundation’s concept of the ideal single-story hospital.

The revolutionary aspects of the hospital include the interior central corridors for hospital personnel, decentralized nurses’ stations, separate corridors for visitors, push-button controls for the self sufficiency of patients, maternity rooms with adjoining private nurseries and home-like color schemes and interior decorations.

Planning for Health (Southern California), Fall, 1955


Napa Medical Office Building, 1959
The new facility will be located on a one and one-half acre site on Jefferson Street, south of Trancas Road in north Napa. The new clinic building will be a one-story, contemporary structure with approximately 5,800 square feet. This will double the size of the present clinic which was opened in 1951 in Napa.

The new offices will have space for six physicians, numerous outpatient treatment rooms, a pharmacy, X-ray and laboratory facilities and a business office and medical record areas. Designed by architect Clarence Mayhew of San Francisco, these new offices are so arranged to permit an orderly expansion when and if required.

KaiPerm Kapsul, October, 1958; [The Ontario, Calif., medical offices were a prototype for this design.]


Oakland Hospital addition, 1960
Mayhew was the architect for the 50-bed addition to the ever-growing original Kaiser Foundation Hospital in Oakland. The Howe Street expansion enlarged the in-patient pediatric department, X-ray department, pharmacy, and clinical laboratory.


South San Francisco expansion, 1961
Work is underway on the major expansion of our South San Francisco facility. It will create a two-and-one-half-story ultra-modern building housing an optical laboratory, pharmacy, and injection clinic. The 10,000-square-foot glass-and-concrete building is designed to accommodate twelve doctors.

Architects Mayhew and Associates of San Francisco planned the facility with future expansion on either or both sides possible in the future. The “half” story will be the low-ceiling basement to be used as a storage area and for medical records. The new building at Grand and Spruce avenues replaces the annex on Miller Avenue.

KP Reporter, August, 1960

Panorama Opening Day

Opening day, Panorama City Hospital


Panorama City Hospital, 1962
(with partner Hal “H.L.” Thiederman, Inc., and Dr. Sidney R. Garfield as medical consultant)

Unlike any of the other hospitals, Panorama City Hospital at 13652 Cantara Street was part of Henry J. Kaiser’s broader community development visions – he had built the Kaiser Community Homes development in 1948, where he’d considered adding the health plan to the home ownership package.

Panorama City was perhaps the most unusual-looking Kaiser Permanente hospital ever built. Within the seven story round towers – universally described as “binoculars”- on top of a standard three-story rectangular base, the floor plan is a manifestation of Dr. Garfield’s “circles of service” concept.

Fourth floor plan of tower, Kaiser Foundation Hospital at Panorama City. 1961 [circa]. [TPMG P1283]

Fourth floor plan of tower, Kaiser Foundation Hospital at Panorama City. circa 1961

It was featured as The Modern Hospital’s “modern hospital of the month” in November 1962. In the seven-page article “Good Nursing is Core of Panorama Plan,” Dr. Sidney Garfield explained the pros and cons of a circular floor plan:

“We try to achieve a functional flow that will satisfy first of all the patient and, second, the staff. We want to get the best possible quality and economy. When we start to work on a new hospital, we proceed from what we’ve learned before. “Panorama City Hospital, for example, is “Honolulu [Hospital] put in circles.”… It saves steps for the nurses [in this case patients are within 20 feet of the nursing station]; it reduces the number of special duty nurses; it keeps the nurses to a central area outside the patients’ door, and it is particularly useful for keeping patients under observation at night with a reduced nursing staff.

The downsides?

“When you divide a circle,” he points out, “you have to divide it in wedges, and that can waste a lot of space.” The wedge shape of the patient rooms, he added, also poses problems in design. The problem is lack of flexibility: “You can’t design a room just the way you want it.”

Because the only economical way to expand a circle is up, he continued, it was necessary to build the three top floors, which are not needed now, against the day they will be needed.

Panorama City, circa 1972, nurses' station

Nurses’ station, Panorama City, circa 1972

The hospital design was brought before a popular audience when TIME magazine wrote about it on September 14, 1962:

Just 17 miles from downtown Los Angeles, the brand-new Kaiser Foundation Hospital at Panorama City looms above the summer-dried landscape like a pair of upended binoculars. But the rush of patients to the twin seven-story towers this week was far more than a response to architectural novelty. It was a testament to the success of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, a repetition of the warm response that greeted the opening of Kaiser’s new Medical Office Building at Hayward, near Oakland, a fortnight ago.

The hospital was severely damaged when the 1994 Northridge earthquake struck the Los Angeles and San Fernando Valley area. In 2008 it was replaced with a new facility at 13651 Willard St.

Architecural drawing of planned Hayward Hosplital, KP Reporter 1965-01

Architectural drawing of planned Hayward Hospital, KP Reporter 1965-01


Hayward Hospital, 1965
(with H.L. Thiederman, Inc.)

Kaiser Foundation Hospitals has awarded a contract to Cahill Construction Co. for major construction of its 96-bed community hospital to adjoin the present Kaiser Foundation medical offices in Hayward, California. The hospital will have a total of 61,200 square feet of floor space for about 250 personnel.
KP Reporter, January, 1965


San Rafael Medical Center, 1973
(with H.L. Thiederman, Inc.)

The first shovel of earth has been turned in San Rafael, for a new $5.5 million Kaiser Permanente Medical Center. The plans include construction of a new hospital and medical offices directly behind the present facility on Montecillo Road, and renovation of the existing hospital. Plans of the new construction include new medical offices, operating rooms, delivery suite, and eight intensive care coronary care beds. It will also provide enlarged laboratory, X-ray and emergency services. The existing hospital will be remodeled to provide 10 pediatric, 10 maternity, and 72 medical/surgical beds. –Planning for Health, December, 1971

 


 

So, what have we done lately? Kaiser Permanente’s facilities continue to evolve with the times. John Kouletsis, Vice President of Facilities Planning and Design for Kaiser Permanente’s National Facilities Services, expresses it this way:

“The rich history of clinical design at Kaiser Permanente continues to be written today. We are designing and delivering cutting edge, innovative medical facilities that support exciting new models of care delivery, including an innovative focus on behavioral health to better serve our members and communities.”

Or, as Architectural Forum put it so succinctly describing Mayhew’s designs in 1954, Kaiser Permanente’s “architecture is part of the cure.”

 

Short link to this article: http://k-p.li/1Yshofu

 

 

 

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Clarence Mayhew – early Kaiser Permanente architect

posted on May 31, 2016

Lincoln Cushing
Heritage writer

Part one of two parts – Walnut Creek, Dragerton, and Fontana

 

 “Hospital design is sort of a hobby of mine.”
—Sidney Garfield, MD, New York Times Magazine, April 28, 1974.

Sidney Garfield and architect Clarence Mahew, looking at drawing of planned Panorama City hospital, 1965 [circa]

Dr. Sidney Garfield and architect Clarence Mayhew looking at illustration of planned Panorama City hospital, circa 1965

Although Kaiser Permanente’s founding physician certainly had a passion for hospital design, and often served as a consultant, professionals were hired when it came to actually bringing these complex structures into being. One of the organization’s most significant architects was Clarence William Whitehead Mayhew (1906-1994).

Mayhew’s career began in 1922 as a draftsman at the San Francisco firm of Arthur Brown, Jr.. He traveled abroad to study at Paris’ Ecole des Beaux-Arts between 1922 and 1925, and returned to the Francisco Bay Area, where he graduated from the University of California at Berkeley School of Architecture in 1927.

He remained in the Bay Area began a long and distinguished career. Mayhew designed homes, including two in scenic Big Sur and Los Angeles for Lucille and David Packard (co-founder of the multinational information technology company Hewlett-Packard). Among his institutional commissions were the Aurelia Henry Reinhardt Alumnae House at Mills College (Oakland, Calif.), the Alumni House at U.C. Berkeley, and a racetrack in Lima, Peru.

But it was his design of early Permanente Foundation hospitals that is the foundation of his legacy.

Planning for Health newsletter  1952-10

Sketch of future Walnut Creek Medical Center, Planning for Health newsletter October, 1952

Mayhew’s first Permanente hospital was the 76-bed Walnut Creek Medical Center, which opened in April, 1953, one year after the flagship Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles hospital. Dr. Garfield was listed as “functional designer and medical consultant.” It, and the subsequent Kaiser Permanente Fontana Hospital, were part of a “small city” hospital movement; the larger and more urban Kaiser Permanente hospitals in San Francisco and Los Angeles were called “dream hospitals.”

Walnut Creek, along with Los Angeles and San Francisco (opened August 1953), were considered marvels of hospital design. Kaiser Permanente’s member newsletter Planning for Health of October 1952 gushed about its charms:

"Today's Most Talked About Hospital..." article on Kaiser Walnut Creek hospital, Architectural Forum, 1954-07. [Also source tiff files saved separately] [TPMG P1288]

“Today’s Most Talked About Hospital…” detail from article on Kaiser Walnut Creek Medical Center, Architectural Forum, July, 1954.

Many unusual innovations have been incorporated to make the hospital outstanding in the service it will render. The usual central corridor has been converted into a private corridor for nurse, doctor and employees, with a nurse’s station located for approximately each eight beds. This keeps the public away from the service area and bring the nurse, supplies and equipment in close proximity to the patient for more efficient care. Visitors reach the rooms via an outer corridor. Each patient enjoys a private or semiprivate room enclosed on one side with glass, affording the patient a pleasant view of landscaped grounds and trees.

Another progressive feature is the maternity wing. Here the central nursery has been eliminated and replaced with an individual nursery behind the bed-wall. At any time the mother, or visitors, can view the baby through a glass window beside the bed while the baby is actually attended by the nurse. Whenever the mother wants her baby beside her, she need only pull out the bassinet and her baby is there.

Even more impressively, the hospital was featured in an eight-page article in the July 1954 issue of Architectural Forum. It was titled “Today’s Most Talked-About Hospital…for four good reasons,” which it articulated:

1: Its architecture is part of the cure
2: Its corridors are actually long workrooms
3: Its bedrooms are designed for patient self-help, and
4: Its economics make it self-supporting at low rates.

Although many of those functional features were Dr. Garfield’s ideas, the aesthetics of the design were credited to Mayhew: “Note the easygoing grace with which Architect Mayhew has imbued a necessarily machinelike plan.”

Immediately on the heels of Walnut Creek were two smaller facilities built in 1954, one at a remote World War II Kaiser Steel coal mining location in Dragerton, Utah, and the other as a civic expansion of the hospital in the city of Fontana, Calif., where Henry J, Kaiser’s wartime steel mill was located.

Detail from blueprint for alterations and additions to Dragerton, Utah hospital, lot bounded by Center Street, Third Street, and Whitmore Drive. Original hospital built 1952. 1953-02-25. [TPMG P2640]

Detail, 1953 alterations and additions to Dragerton, Utah hospital, (Center Street, Third Street, and Whitmore Drive.)

The War Production Board had built a hospital at Dragerton (now called East Carbon City), which was later purchased by a physician who soon afterwards was charged with medical and fiscal mismanagement. United States Steel asked Henry J. Kaiser to take over the hospital in early 1952. Miners were desperate for proper care, and the team of Permanente physicians – which included shipyard doctor Wallace “Wally” Cook – was swamped. Mayhew designed a simple hospital, for which Dr. Garfield was listed as “consultant.”

Although a Permanente health plan was never established in the region, the hospital remained as Utah Permanente Hospital until 1966. However, this commitment to serving working people would eventually re-emerge as a plea for expansion from stakeholders in Colorado, which Kaiser Permanente began to do in 1969.

Architectural drawing, Fontana Kaiser Foundation Hospital, 9961 Sierra Ave., completed 1954. Clarence Mayhew, architect. Plans 1953 [circa]. [TPMG P1479]

Architectural drawing, Fontana Kaiser Foundation Hospital, 9961 Sierra Ave., completed 1954. Clarence Mayhew, architect.

In Fontana, a wartime hospital existed on the steel mill site, but once the Permanente Health Plan was opened to the public after the war it made more sense to locate a hospital in town. At first Dr. Garfield considered simply expanding the hospital at the steel plant, but in late 1953 Kaiser Steel Corporation Vice-president and General Manager Jack L. Ashby wrote to Dr. Garfield and told him:

I am advised that last month alone some 9,000 to 10,000 people visited the existing clinic now at the steel plant. The overcrowded condition is constantly a problem… In our opinion, not to build the clinic in the City of Fontana would be like building a beautiful automobile without an engine.

The San Bernardino County Sun published an article August 19, 1954, announcing a three-day open house:

The Kaiser Foundation’s newest “hospital of the future,” bringing to the Fontana area the last word in comfort and efficiency for patients and the hospital staff, will be introduced to the public next week.

The new medical facilities, initially containing 42 beds, are located on a 15-acre site at 9961 Sierra Ave., corner of Marygold Ave. They will complement the existing 88-bed Foundation hospital at the nearby steel mill of Kaiser Steel Corp., which donated $300,000 to help finance the new structure. The hospital, in the center of the expanding Fontana-Bloomington-Rialto-Etiwanda area of 60,000 population, is a community hospital open to the general public and to all qualified physicians and their patients, as well as Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members.

The one-story, “T” shaped building, of steel construction and utilizing vast amounts of glass, is the second of the Foundation’s concept of the ideal “small city” hospital.

Three hospitals in two years – that’s a pretty remarkable pace. But Mayhew was just getting started.

 

Next: More California hospitals 1955-1973: Harbor City, Panorama City, and San Rafael.

 

Short link to this article: http://k-p.li/1WXvpSN

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