Posts Tagged ‘Merchant Marine’

Patriot in Pinstripes: Honoring Veterans, Homefront, and Peace

posted on November 7, 2017

Lincoln Cushing
Heritage writer

 

Henry J. Kaiser speaking at Navy ship dedication, Northwest shipyards, circa 1943.

During World War II, Henry J. Kaiser was a major producer of America’s “arsenal of democracy.” The Kaiser Richmond shipyards launched 747 ships; the yards in the Portland, Ore., area produced 743. Kaiser built cargo ships, tankers, fighting ships, and airplanes. Biographer Mark S. Foster dubbed him a “patriot in pinstripes.”

But Kaiser was no hawk. His eye was always on the human impact of the war, and his vision was focused on postwar reconstruction. He expressed these themes in a speech he gave in December, 1943:

Ironical as it must appear, the war has taught us to employ our vast resources and to multiply them a million-fold by power and the machine. The war has taught us how to train men and women quickly for new trades so that the labor, which is displaced by the machine can be quickly adapted to new techniques. In the dread circumstances of war, we have brought employment to the peak, and efficiency to an all-time high…[but] If we rebuild a world of monopoly and special privilege, we will taste a defeat as bitter as a victory for the Axis powers.

His employment record of 190,000 home front workers was unequalled, embracing the most diverse workforce to date in American history. While it’s true that as the war progressed, Kaiser had no choice but to hire workers beyond the standard industrial pool, he also did so without hesitation. He’d managed a diverse workforce in his construction business (such as while roadbuilding in Cuba in the 1920s) and learned how to adjust the work process to fit those who were doing it. His personal philosophy was to encourage the full development of all people.

Real Heroes comic, published by The Parents Magazine Press, 1943. Henry Kaiser is honored, along with Admiral William “Bull” Halsey and General Brehon Somervell.

He pushed back as much as he could against the unions that resisted change (most notoriously, the shipyard Boilermakers Union initially refused to hire women and blacks as equals to white workers), and went to great lengths to “accommodate” the needs of the new workforce – child care centers, special medical education programs, ability-based job placement, affordable health care – all things that he believed were of value to the postwar society as well.

He was the patron sponsor of the integrated service organization for merchant mariners, who operated his ships and suffered terribly during the war.

As Allied victory began to appear certain, he redoubled his plans for the next phase of history. His October 17, 1944, speech “Jobs for All” in New York eloquently described his views:

On this one fact, there is unanimous agreement: every man in the American Forces has the right to come home not only to a job, but to peace. Anything less would be a denial of the true American way of life. Peace means so much more than a cessation of hostilities! Peace is a state of mind. It is based on the sense of security…Often I am classified as a dreamer, particularly when I talk about health insurance. To live abundantly and take part in a productive economy, our people must have health.

Let us be inspired by Henry Kaiser and honor our veterans, honor our home front workers, honor peace.

 

Short link to this article: http://k-p.li/2j78zfH

 

 

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Henry J. Kaiser’s Early Support for Merchant Marine Veterans

posted on November 19, 2015

Lincoln Cushing
Heritage writer

 

War is hell.

One of the grim metrics of conflict is the casualty rate. During World War II no branch of the U.S. Armed Forces suffered as high a proportion as those who served in the American Merchant Marine – and who weren’t even in the military. Merchant mariners suffered the highest rate of casualties of any service, losing 3.9 percent of their 243,000 members, more than the 3.7 percent of the U.S. Marines.

Fore'n'Aft, 1944-10-06

Photo from article about United Seamen’s Service center in San Francisco; Kaiser Richmond shipyard newspaper Fore’n’Aft, 10/06/1944.

An earlier blog post laid out the background on the role of the wartime Merchant Marine and their struggle for respect and benefits. This year two legislators introduced HR563, the World War II Merchant Mariners Act, which would recognize surviving seamen “for their bravery and sacrifice” and award them $25,000 each.

However, few know of the support that famed World War II shipbuilder Henry J. Kaiser offered those mariners during the war, and how that support exemplified his commitment to nondiscrimination in serving communities.

With the urging of maritime unions, the United Seamen’s Service was created August 8, 1942, by the War Shipping Administration with the approval of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. It sought to provide facilities for rest, recreation and safety for seafarers who carried troops and war materials to ports in the war zones. Eventually more than 125 locations would be established worldwide.

It was turned over for private operation and ownership on September 13, 1942. Henry J. Kaiser was the first president, and the War Shipping Administration’s Admiral Emory S. Land was chairman of the board. Joseph Curran, of the National Maritime Union, and Harry Lundeberg, of the National Seafarer’s Union, were vice presidents.

Andrew Furuseth Club, United Seamen's Service postcard- 1943

Andrew Furuseth Club, United Seamen’s Service postcard, 1943

“United Seamen’s Service Opens Recreational Club” in The New York Age from October 17, 1942, touted the the first USS facility. The club was named for Andrew Furuseth (1854-1938), a central figure in the formation of two influential maritime unions: the Sailors’ Union of the Pacific and the International Seamen’s Union. A Kaiser-built Liberty ship named for Furuseth would be launched from Kaiser Richmond shipyard number 1 the next month, on September 7.

Officers and men of the American Merchant Marine, many of them survivors of ships sunk by the enemy, cheered as the United Seamen’s Service opened for their exclusive use, the first of a coastal chain of recreational clubs at 30 East 37th street.

The staid, brownstone, four story building, owned by Mrs. Julius S. Morgan and situated within a few doors of J.P. Morgan’s home, was “dressed” for the occasion from roof to basement with code flags and burgees, as a band played nautical airs. Accustomed to cramped accommodations aboard ship, the seamen praised the club’s spacious and luxuriously appointed lounge rooms, game rooms, library, and the dance floor with its modernistic bar.

Speaking at the opening of the club, Douglas P. Falconer, national director of United Seamen’s Service, declared that the neglect of human needs of seamen was a disgrace to the nation. He promised that his organization would do its utmost to “rub out that disgrace.”

"Merchant Seamen Have Own Club" 1942-10-22

“Merchant Seamen Have Own Club” wire photo, 10/22/1942

In describing the program of the United, Seamen’s Service…Mr. Falconer said: “We’ll look after every American seaman picked up by a rescue ship and landed in a strange port far from home. If he needs medical care, well see that he gets it on the spot. We’ll replace his lost clothes and papers, notify his folk at home. We’ll see that he gets proper food and rest and freedom from worry over how he’s going to get back home and on another ship. For that’s all the men themselves ask is a chance to get patched up so that they can go to sea again!

A postcard for the club noted that, in addition to coffee and home-cooked food, the club had “medical and social services staff in daily attendance.” That’s care and coverage together.

 

A January, 1943, article “All Seamen Are the Same” in The Crisis (the magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) praised the USS’s impact in the fight against racism and discrimination:

The United Seamen’s Service is outstanding in that the set-up makes no provision for discrimination because of race or creed. Rest homes are planned in many of the southern seaboard communities where merchant seamen will live together without special provisions being made for Negroes…

With the existence of separate USO [United Service Organizations] centers within the army camps and separate canteens for white and Negro soldiers, the action of the United Seamen’s Service presents a lesson in practical democracy that may well be copied by many other groups, including the United States Navy, Army, and Marine Corps.

Henry J. Kaiser was called the “Patriot in Pinstripes” for his contributions during World War II, but his social justice legacy extended to Home Front veterans without uniforms as well.

 

Also see:
The USS / American Merchant Marine Library Association currently

Blog posts:
Thousands of Merchant Seamen Lost Lives in World War II
Henry Kaiser and the Merchant Sailors Union: The Curious Case of the SS Pho Pho

Short link to this article: http://k-p.li/1QwHP0x
Blog updated 11/20/2015

 

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Liberty and Victory ships named for African Americans

posted on April 15, 2015

Lincoln Cushing
Heritage writer

 

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(Center) Mr. Walter Gordon, daughter Betty Gordon, Elizabeth Gordon at launching of the SS John Hope.

One of our patriotic messages during World War II was that our society was better than that promoted by the Axis forces. And part of that messaging was about how we were more tolerant and inclusive than Hitler’s “master Aryan race.”

To Americans of color, all of them keenly aware of our segregated military, the internment camps for Japanese Americans, or the whites-only Boilermakers union in the shipyards, this was a challenging sell. But winning the war demanded huge changes in attitude from everyone. One high profile commitment to honoring diversity was the naming of cargo ships, a task which fell under the direction of the Maritime Commission’s Ship Naming Committee.

Before the war ended, 18 Liberty ships built for the Maritime Commission were named for outstanding African Americans. Towards the end of the war four of them honored black Merchant Mariners who perished under fire. In addition, four of the subsequent Victory-class ships were named for historically black colleges. Six of these 22 vessels were built in Kaiser shipyards; some – most notably the SS George Washington Carver – were predominately built by African American men and women. Ships thus named were a tremendous source of recognition and pride in the black community. Historian Shirley Ann Moore described the impact of one launching in her seminal work about the Richmond (Calif.) African American community To Place Our Deeds:

“Thousands of black people, far more than could be ‘simply be accounted for by black shipyard workers and their families,’ crowded into the yard. As the ship ‘shivered and slid into the water,’ a black woman ‘threw up her arms and raised her voice above the crowd. ‘Freedom’ she cried.’ “

The SS John Hope [#272] was launched January 30, 1944. It was Kaiser Richmond shipyard #2’s 272nd Liberty ship and the 8th ship named after an outstanding African American. Hope, born in Atlanta, was an African-American educator and political activist, the first African-descended president of both Morehouse College in 1906 and of Atlanta University in 1929, where he worked to develop graduate programs. Both were historically black colleges.

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Mr. Thomas Pruitt, “baritone and burner.”

Presiding at the launch were Walter Gordon, Elizabeth Gordon, and their daughter Betty Gordon. Also present were Mrs. Harry Kingman, Matron of Honor (whose husband was the chairman of the President’s Fair Practices Employment Committee), Miss Florence Gee (daughter of a shipyard worker), and Rev. Roy Nichols (Associate Minister of the newly formed South Berkeley Community Church).

Walter Arthur Gordon (1894-1976) was the first African American to receive a doctorate of law from U.C. Berkeley’s Boalt Hall law school. He had an extremely long and varied career where he served as a police officer, lawyer, assistant football coach, member of the California Adult Authority, governor of the United States Virgin Islands, and a federal district judge.

The launch proceedings were published in the May 1944 issue of The Sphinx magazine, the second-oldest continuously published African American journal in the United States. The article stated:

Mr. Thomas Pruitt, a baritone and burner on graveyard shift at the Richmond yards, sang two songs: “Water Boy” and “Without a song.”

Mrs. Hope was unable to attend, but sent a message that was read aloud:

“You can imagine how happy it would make me to see that great ship slide down the ways. We hope that it will help hasten the day when liberty, justice, and peace will reign over the entire world. I know that this would be John Hope’s wish. He was a member of nature’s nobility. This ship would not be worthy of his name, if it were not willing to give its all for humanity.”

These pictures of that launching, never previously published, are from the extensive and remarkable collection taken by African American photographer Emmanuel Francis Joseph.

 

Liberty ships

1. SS Booker T. Washington, educator and founder of Tuskegee Institute (#648, September 29, 1942, California Shipbuilding Corp., Terminal Island, CA)
[It was aboard this ship that West Indies-born Captain Hugh Mulzac became the first African American merchant marine naval officer to command an integrated crew during World War II]

2. SS George Washington Carver, scientist (#542, May 7, 1943; Kaiser Richmond shipyard #1)

3. SS Frederick Douglass, abolitionist leader and editor (#988, May 22, 1943; Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyards, Baltimore,)

4. SS John Merrick, insurance executive (#1990, July 11, 1943; North Carolina Shipbuilding Company, Wilmington, NC)

5. SS Robert L. Vann, founder and publisher of the Pittsburgh Courier (#2189, October 10, 1943; South Portland Shipbuilding Corporation, South Portland, Maine)

6. SS Paul Laurence Dunbar, poet (#1897, October 19, 1943; California Shipbuilding Corp., Terminal Island, CA)

7. SS James Weldon Johnson, poet, author and diplomat (#2546, December 12, 1943; California Shipbuilding Corp., Terminal Island, CA)

8. SS John Hope, educator (#2742, January 30, 1944; Kaiser Richmond shipyard #2)

9. SS John H. Murphy, founder and publisher of The Afro-American (#2614, March 29, 1944; Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyards, Baltimore, MD)

10. SS Toussaint L’Ouverture, Haitian independence leader (#2780, April 4, 1944; Kaiser Richmond Shipyard #2)

11. SS Robert S. Abbott, founder and publisher of the Chicago Defender (#2785, April 13, 1944; Kaiser Richmond shipyard #2)

12. SS Harriet Tubman, abolitionist and leader of the Underground Railroad (#3032, June 3, 1944; South Portland Shipbuilding Corporation, South Portland, Maine)

13. SS Bert Williams, comedian and vaudeville performer (#3079, June 4, 1944; Todd New England Shipbuilding Corp., South Portland, Maine)

14. SS Edward A. Savoy, confidential messenger for 22 secretaries of State (#2660, July 19, 1944; Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyards, Baltimore, MD)

15. SS James Kyron Walker, Second Cook, lost on the Gulfamerica, torpedoed and sunk (#2982, December 15, 1944; Todd Houston Shipbuilding Corporation, Houston, TX)

16. SS Robert J. Banks, Second Cook, lost on the Gulfamerica, torpedoed and sunk (#2392, December 20, 1944; J.A. Jones Construction Company, Brunswick, Georgia)

17. SS William Cox, Fireman, died when the David Atwater was sunk by enemy fire (#2394, December 30, 1944; J.A. Jones Construction Company, Brunswick, Georgia)

18. SS George A. Lawson, Messman aboard the tug Menominee, torpedoed and sunk (#3097, February 1, 1945; New England Shipbuilding Co., Bath, Maine)

 

Victory ships

19. SS Fisk Victory, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee (#749, May 14, 1945; Kaiser Richmond shipyard #2)

20. SS Howard Victory, Howard University, Washington. D. C. (#822, May 19, 1945; Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyards, Baltimore, MD)

21. SS Tuskegee Victory, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama (#682, June 5, 1945, Kaiser Oregon Shipbuilding Corp.; Portland, OR)
[Renamed USNS Dutton, T-AGS-22, an oceanographic survey ship, November 1, 1958]

22. SS Lane Victory, Lane College, Jackson, Tennessee (#794, June 27, 1945, California Shipbuilding Corp., Terminal Island, CA)
The Lane Victory is now a museum ship in San Pedro, Calif., and has appeared in various commercials, movies and television programs.

 

Photographs courtesy Careth Reid / E.F. Joseph Collection. All rights reserved.

Short link to this article: http://k-p.li/1OglXRy

 

 

 

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Henry Kaiser and merchant sailors union: the curious case of the SS Pho Pho

posted on April 8, 2014

By Lincoln Cushing
Heritage writer

Kaiser Gypsum's Harry Lundeberg

Kaiser Gypsum’s second S.S. Harry Lundeberg, 1958, with Lundeberg’s wife Ida and children Gunnar, Erik, and Alette. Kaiser Permanente Heritage Resources archive.

After World War II ended and Henry J. Kaiser’s shipyards closed, he continued to be active in the shipping trade. One example of his support for sailors was the curious case of the freighter Pho Pho.

In 1950, members of the Sailors’ Union of the Pacific picketed the Panamanian-flagged SS Pho Pho, owned by a Greek-American, at the port of Redwood City in Northern California.

The Kaiser Gypsum Company had entered into a six-year shipping contract with the vessel owner because it was retiring its own ship, the SS Permanente Silverbow.

The sailors’ union demanded that “. . . The owners of the Pho Pho negotiate an agreement bringing wages and conditions [of the foreign crew] to the same level as (that of) American vessels.”[i]

Permanente Silverbow-sm

S.S. Permanente Silverbow, one of two steamships that carried bulk cement shipments to ports along the Pacific Coast and in Hawaii.
Image circa 1944.

Instead of digging in his heels and fighting the labor action, Kaiser saw the long-term value of labor peace and made a friendly bet with union president Harry Lundeberg. As the ship was idled for 10 weeks, Kaiser reportedly told Lundeberg “If you win this beef, Harry, I’ll name the ship after you.”

The union campaign was successful, and the vessel became the first to be crewed entirely by union members. Kaiser honored his word, bought the ship, and the SS Pho Pho became the SS Harry Lundeberg on July 20, 1950. She ran aground off the Mexican coast at Cape San Lucas (near San Marcos Island in Baja California, where gypsum was being mined) in 1955, and was replaced with a second ship in 1958.

After the Pho Pho victory, Sailors’ union members also operated two subsequent Kaiser Gypsum ships, the SS Ocean Carrier and the SS Western Ocean.

Short link to this article: http://bit.ly/1mWdF8n


[i] “Forty Pickets Block Greek Ship Unloading,” San Mateo Times, April 10, 1950.

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Thousands of merchant seamen lost lives in World War II

posted on March 24, 2014

By Lincoln Cushing
Heritage writer

“The first Liberty ship was named after Patrick Henry. The last 100 have been named for merchant seamen who died in wartime service.” –Fore ‘n’ Aft, Kaiser Richmond shipyard newsletter, May 18, 1945.[i]

Almost 1,500 World War II Liberty and Victory ships were built in the Kaiser shipyards. What most people do not realize is that they were not produced for the U.S. Navy – they were made for the United States Maritime Commission, an independent federal agency created by the Merchant Marine Act of 1936.[ii]

These ships were vital to winning the war. General Dwight D. Eisenhower issued a message congratulating those who built the ships:

“This headquarters has just heard the glorious news that American shipyards have produced more than 2,100 merchant vessels in the past two years.

WPA poster recruiting for US Maritime Service, 1942; image courtesy Library of Congress

WPA poster recruiting for U.S. Maritime Service, 1942; image courtesy Library of Congress

“This remarkable record, unequaled in history, will bring confidence and encouragement to every soldier, sailor and airman in the Allied Forces, for they are most keenly aware that their ability to carry on the fight, indeed, their ability to survive, is completely dependent on ships . . . Ships, still more ships, and ever more ships will help smash the enemy.”[iii]

But ships don’t run by themselves. Merchant seamen staffed those vessels and thus served a vital – and dangerous – function during World War II. Although usually thought of as civilians, these seamen were “military” according to International Law because their ships were armed – albeit lightly. The merchant mariners were trained to shoot and could fire on the enemy if threatened.

President Roosevelt lauds seamen

President Roosevelt declared in 1944: “It seems to me particularly appropriate that Victory Fleet Day this year should honor the men and management of the American Merchant Marine.

“The operators in this war have written one of its most brilliant chapters. They have delivered the goods when and where needed in every theater of operations and across every ocean in the biggest, the most difficult and dangerous transportation job ever undertaken.

“As time goes on, there will be greater public understanding of our merchant fleet’s record during this war,” Roosevelt said.[iv]

"Back the invasion- Get the oil to the tanks" shipyard progress infographic billboard, Kaiser Swan Island shipyard (Oregon), 1944

“Back the invasion – Get the oil to the tanks” shipyard progress infographic billboard, Kaiser Swan Island Shipyard (Oregon), 1944

Legislation to equalize benefits for merchant seamen with those afforded members of the armed services under the GI Bill languished in Congress, despite the president’s endorsement and support from Admiral Emory S. Land, chairman of the Maritime Commission.

On the advice of his labor relations lawyer, Harry F. Morton, Henry Kaiser pushed for the legislation. Morton wrote to Kaiser:[v]

“I cannot see how this endorsement could possibly affect our dealings with the various unions since the purpose of the bill is to compensate the seamen for the personal risks these men take daily while in the service.

“As Admiral Land points out . . . more than 5,700 merchant seamen have lost their lives or have been reported missing in action, and over 500 of them are prisoners of war.

“True enough, merchant seamen receive considerably more pay than do the men in the Armed Services, but that alone does not warrant the conclusion that they are not entitled to the added protection recommended by Admiral Land.

“ . . . [it is] my conclusion that you should join with the President and Admiral Land in recommending this legislation (because) any other course would be inconsistent with your advocacy of merchant seamen’s needs in the past. I recommend this even though it is a departure from your standard position regarding endorsements of proposed legislation.”

Yet with Roosevelt’s untimely death on April 12, 1945, political support for extending basic benefits to merchant seamen for their wartime service vanished until Congress awarded them veterans’ status 40-plus years later in 1988 – too late for half of those who served.

 

Special thanks to Toni Horodysky, historian behind the American Merchant Marine at War website, for help with this article.

Short link to this story: http://bit.ly/1eGheL3


[i] Not only were 100 ships thusly named, an additional 20 were named for merchant mariners who received the Distinguished Service Medal. Only one of these – the SS Samuel L. Cobb, launched May 27, 1944, named for a seaman lost April 17, 1942, aboard the SS Alcoa Guide – was built in a Kaiser shipyard.

[ii] Although building merchant ships was its top priority, until the Maritime Commission became the Federal Maritime Commission in 1950 it was also responsible for training ship’s officers under the U.S. Maritime Service.

[iii] General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Commander in Chief of Allied Forces in the Mediterranean area, message to home front workers, Fore ‘n’ Aft, 10/22/1943

[iv] Franklin D. Roosevelt, public address 9/19/1944.

[v] Inter-Office memo from Harry F. Morton to Henry J. Kaiser, 12/23/1944; Henry J. Kaiser papers, UC Berkeley Bancroft Library, BANC 26:25-4

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‘Song of the Victory Fleet’

posted on March 5, 2014

By Lincoln Cushing, Heritage writer 

“Whenever and wherever Americans gather, there you hear Americans singing, because America is a singing nation.”

F&A 1944-05-26-3-det

“Our Merchant Ships Deliver the Goods” infographic, Fore ‘n’ Aft (Kaiser Richmond Shipyards newsletter) 5/26/1944

This is the stirring introduction to a recording of patriotic music from the Oct. 27, 1945, launching celebration of the SS Bent’s Fort, the last tanker built in the Kaiser Swan Island Shipyards in Portland, Oregon, under the wartime contract.

“Song of the Victory Fleet” is performed by “The Singing Sentinels,” four Oregon Shipbuilding Company security guards (Del Von Zuethen, Chuck Faris,   John “Ken” Rogers and Mel Gordon) who provided entertainment at ship launchings and other
events.
[i]

After the war they continued as the “Kaiser-Frazer Singing Sentinels” at the Willow Run automobile plant in Michigan.[ii]

We’ll build and sail ‘em – We’ll never fail ‘em!
The Victory Fleet will be complete we know.

On every ocean, we’ll be in motion,
The Victory Fleet will soon defeat the foe.

We’ll have a bridge of ships beyond compare,
We’ll soon be able to walk from here to over there.

The world is cheering! The skies are clearing!
With the Victory Fleet – Let’s go.

“Song of the Victory Fleet”
words and music by
Leonard Whiteup, 1942 (1903-1979)

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Employees open house, Richmond shipyard #2, part of 1945 Martime Day observances.
Click on graphic to hear the Singing Sentinels perform “Song of the Victory Fleet”

“Song of the Victory Fleet” was first performed May 22, 1942, at the initial wartime observance of National Maritime Day.

It was dedicated to the U.S. Maritime Commission, and immediately adopted as theirs.

Congress established National Maritime Day in 1933 to honor our country’s role in marine transportation; at the time the Merchant Marine was quite small. But that all changed with World War II .

Absent from this recording is the interlude:

In the fact’ries hear the hammers night and day.
In the shipyards everyone is on his way.

On the ocean every seaman joins the fray.
We heard the bugles blow! We answered our country’s call!

We’re ready one and all!

Journalist Peter Edson, writing his column for the Times Daily, had this to say when the song premiered:

“The song is one of those rousing sea chanteys that even a landlubber building lifeboats in Kokomo can limber up his larynx on and get a belt out of bellowing or barber shopping.

“And when you accompany the tune with full orchestration and sound effects of riveting hammers, clanking anchor chains and the blowing of full-lunged baritone and bass steamship whistles – matey, it does something to your morale.

“Morale building is the big idea behind observance of Maritime Day this year and this whole shipping program is something to give your spine a tingle. It isn’t just something to celebrate on salt water, either, with maybe the Great Lakes thrown in for good measure.

“There will be big celebrations in the 60 shipyards where, on some 300 ways, ocean-going ships are under construction.”

After the war, celebrations of service focused on those in the military, and merchant mariners were left out of the festivities. Maritime Day ceased, but in 1970 the Maritime Administration resurrected this observance of honoring veterans of the merchant marine and those who gave their lives in service to the United States. That observance has been held every year since then.

Hear the Singing Sentinels perform “Song of the Victory Fleet”
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qTW5TEYOoXs

 Short link to this story: http://bit.ly/1cCZjRh


[i] Article on the Singing Sentinels, http://weirdportland.blogspot.com/2013/05/the-singing-sentinels.html

[ii] Article in Saline (MI) Observer 3/20/1947

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