War is hell.
One of the grim metrics of conflict is the casualty rate. During World War II no branch of the U.S. Armed Forces suffered as high a proportion as those who served in the American Merchant Marine – and who weren’t even in the military. Merchant mariners suffered the highest rate of casualties of any service, losing 3.9 percent of their 243,000 members, more than the 3.7 percent of the U.S. Marines.
An earlier blog post laid out the background on the role of the wartime Merchant Marine and their struggle for respect and benefits. This year two legislators introduced HR563, the World War II Merchant Mariners Act, which would recognize surviving seamen “for their bravery and sacrifice” and award them $25,000 each.
However, few know of the support that famed World War II shipbuilder Henry J. Kaiser offered those mariners during the war, and how that support exemplified his commitment to nondiscrimination in serving communities.
With the urging of maritime unions, the United Seamen’s Service was created August 8, 1942, by the War Shipping Administration with the approval of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. It sought to provide facilities for rest, recreation and safety for seafarers who carried troops and war materials to ports in the war zones. Eventually more than 125 locations would be established worldwide.
It was turned over for private operation and ownership on September 13, 1942. Henry J. Kaiser was the first president, and the War Shipping Administration’s Admiral Emory S. Land was chairman of the board. Joseph Curran, of the National Maritime Union, and Harry Lundeberg, of the National Seafarer’s Union, were vice presidents.
“United Seamen’s Service Opens Recreational Club” in The New York Age from October 17, 1942, touted the the first USS facility. The club was named for Andrew Furuseth (1854-1938), a central figure in the formation of two influential maritime unions: the Sailors’ Union of the Pacific and the International Seamen’s Union. A Kaiser-built Liberty ship named for Furuseth would be launched from Kaiser Richmond shipyard number 1 the next month, on September 7.
Officers and men of the American Merchant Marine, many of them survivors of ships sunk by the enemy, cheered as the United Seamen’s Service opened for their exclusive use, the first of a coastal chain of recreational clubs at 30 East 37th street.
The staid, brownstone, four story building, owned by Mrs. Julius S. Morgan and situated within a few doors of J.P. Morgan’s home, was “dressed” for the occasion from roof to basement with code flags and burgees, as a band played nautical airs. Accustomed to cramped accommodations aboard ship, the seamen praised the club’s spacious and luxuriously appointed lounge rooms, game rooms, library, and the dance floor with its modernistic bar.
Speaking at the opening of the club, Douglas P. Falconer, national director of United Seamen’s Service, declared that the neglect of human needs of seamen was a disgrace to the nation. He promised that his organization would do its utmost to “rub out that disgrace.”
In describing the program of the United, Seamen’s Service…Mr. Falconer said: “We’ll look after every American seaman picked up by a rescue ship and landed in a strange port far from home. If he needs medical care, well see that he gets it on the spot. We’ll replace his lost clothes and papers, notify his folk at home. We’ll see that he gets proper food and rest and freedom from worry over how he’s going to get back home and on another ship. For that’s all the men themselves ask is a chance to get patched up so that they can go to sea again!
A postcard for the club noted that, in addition to coffee and home-cooked food, the club had “medical and social services staff in daily attendance.” That’s care and coverage together.
A January, 1943, article “All Seamen Are the Same” in The Crisis (the magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) praised the USS’s impact in the fight against racism and discrimination:
The United Seamen’s Service is outstanding in that the set-up makes no provision for discrimination because of race or creed. Rest homes are planned in many of the southern seaboard communities where merchant seamen will live together without special provisions being made for Negroes…
With the existence of separate USO [United Service Organizations] centers within the army camps and separate canteens for white and Negro soldiers, the action of the United Seamen’s Service presents a lesson in practical democracy that may well be copied by many other groups, including the United States Navy, Army, and Marine Corps.
Henry J. Kaiser was called the “Patriot in Pinstripes” for his contributions during World War II, but his social justice legacy extended to Home Front veterans without uniforms as well.
Short link to this article: http://k-p.li/1QwHP0x
Blog updated 11/20/2015
The last published work of Morris F. Collen, MD, one of Kaiser Permanente’s original founding physicians, has been published almost exactly a year after his death at age 100. Dr. Collen – Morrie, as he was affectionately known to many of us – worked on the book virtually until the day he died on Sept. 27, 2014.
This second edition of A History of Medical Informatics in the United States, available in hardback and eBook, was not only a labor of Dr. Collen’s love for the field – is also a comprehensive updating of his original work, first published in 1995.
The Permanente Medical Group, which supported the book’s publication, and the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research, honored Collen’s life and the colleagues who helped to complete this book during the American Medical Informatics Association symposium at the San Francisco Hilton Union Square this November 15.
On his 100th birthday, November 12, 2013, Collen reflected on the amazing changes in health care during his lifetime.
Now everybody has a personal health record…The technology has kept advancing. Our first computer took up a whole room. Now your smart phone has got everything that we had on the IBM 1440…You can go and pull up your Kaiser record! It’s fantastic! I can hardly believe it.
And he himself was a key figure in that advancement.
This final edition offered a forum for health care professionals to laud Dr. Collen’s notable achievements in two forewords and a preface. These excerpts attest to the impact of Dr. Collen’s work.
Foreword by Charles Safran, MD, professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and recipient of the 2014 Morris F. Collen Award:
How often does a person envision a new medical discipline and then live to see this vision come into reality? He not only practiced his discipline, he established professional associations to promote it, and he mentored generations of practitioners. As a result of his pioneering efforts, we now have a field of clinical informatics. Information and communication technology is now used to improve health and healthcare in our hospitals, our clinicians’ offices, our places of work, our schools, and our homes. Physicians and nurses now train in clinical informatics, and physicians can be board certified in what has become a new subspecialty.
Foreword by Tracy Lieu, MD, director of the Division of Research at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, Calif. and Robert Pearl, MD, executive director and CEO of The Permanente Medical Group:
Dr. Collen developed his groundbreaking contributions to medical informatics amid the fertile environment of Kaiser Permanente, one of the nation’s first and most renowned integrated healthcare systems. As one of the founding partners of The Permanente Medical Group, now the largest medical group in the U.S., Morrie championed the principle that physicians should manage healthcare for both individual patients and large populations. He and the organization’s other founders weathered controversy during the 1940s and 1950s for their beliefs. Today, the concepts of prepayment for services, comprehensive electronic medical records, and an emphasis on preventive care have been widely embraced throughout the country.
This book reflects Morrie’s visionary leadership as well as the dedication of his many colleagues, especially his beloved editor, Marion Ball, EdD. At a time when the most advanced computers had less power than a watch today, he saw what was possible and the ultimate potential for big data to revolutionize medical care. In sharing ways we can harness information to take better care of patients in real-world settings, this work stands as a beacon on the path to better healthcare for modern society.
Preface by Marion J. Ball, EdD, and editor of this edition:
As he revised his History, Morrie restructured the book… reflecting the transformation medical informatics had undergone in the years since 1990. This new History provides an unrivaled repository of the literature – much of it in hard-to-locate proceedings and reports from professional and industry groups – that guided informatics as it matured. Yet it is much more than a repository. It sets forth Morrie’s last assessments of the field he pioneered and cultivated, and it is enriched by the contributions of his colleagues who reviewed his chapters and helped bring this volume to completion. Always collegial, Morrie himself would welcome these new perspectives on the work that engaged him so completely up to the end of his life.
To all those who look to the evolving field of informatics for tools and approaches to providing healthcare that is efficient, effective, evidence-based, and of the highest quality possible, this is Morrie’s gift.
Dr. Collen, we thank you for your gifts.
More on Kaiser Permanente health research: http://k-p.li/research
Short link to this article: http://k-p.li/1SOs2so
During the Viet Nam War students from the Kaiser Foundation School of Nursing (1947-1976) participated in clinical rotation programs in rehabilitation, community, and rural health. For training in psychiatric nursing, many went to the Veterans Administration Hospital (now called the Veterans Affairs Medical Center) in Martinez, Calif.
There, they not only honed their skill in compassionate nursing, they brought comfort to servicemen and women recovering from the war in Southeast Asia.
A June, 1967 article in the KP Reporter titled “Nursing students entertain at Martinez” described a successful third year win in a theatrical revue contest:
The student nurses – who have temporarily traded in their caps and uniforms for greasepaint and the footlights – also presented their musical skits at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Martinez the following week. In the past only the winning class has gone, but this year all three classes entertained the patients. Approximately 350 people attended the annual Spring Sing.
Snapshots from KFSN alumni from that same year show more of this relationship – a day of physical therapy, socializing, and recreation.
Special thanks to KFSN alumni for help with this article.
Short link to this article: http://k-p.li/1LQCz3V