Posts Tagged ‘affordable health care’

Patriot in Pinstripes: Honoring Veterans, Homefront, and Peace

posted on November 7, 2017

Lincoln Cushing
Heritage writer

 

Henry J. Kaiser speaking at Navy ship dedication, Northwest shipyards, circa 1943.

During World War II, Henry J. Kaiser was a major producer of America’s “arsenal of democracy.” The Kaiser Richmond shipyards launched 747 ships; the yards in the Portland, Ore., area produced 743. Kaiser built cargo ships, tankers, fighting ships, and airplanes. Biographer Mark S. Foster dubbed him a “patriot in pinstripes.”

But Kaiser was no hawk. His eye was always on the human impact of the war, and his vision was focused on postwar reconstruction. He expressed these themes in a speech he gave in December, 1943:

Ironical as it must appear, the war has taught us to employ our vast resources and to multiply them a million-fold by power and the machine. The war has taught us how to train men and women quickly for new trades so that the labor, which is displaced by the machine can be quickly adapted to new techniques. In the dread circumstances of war, we have brought employment to the peak, and efficiency to an all-time high…[but] If we rebuild a world of monopoly and special privilege, we will taste a defeat as bitter as a victory for the Axis powers.

His employment record of 190,000 home front workers was unequalled, embracing the most diverse workforce to date in American history. While it’s true that as the war progressed, Kaiser had no choice but to hire workers beyond the standard industrial pool, he also did so without hesitation. He’d managed a diverse workforce in his construction business (such as while roadbuilding in Cuba in the 1920s) and learned how to adjust the work process to fit those who were doing it. His personal philosophy was to encourage the full development of all people.

Real Heroes comic, published by The Parents Magazine Press, 1943. Henry Kaiser is honored, along with Admiral William “Bull” Halsey and General Brehon Somervell.

He pushed back as much as he could against the unions that resisted change (most notoriously, the shipyard Boilermakers Union initially refused to hire women and blacks as equals to white workers), and went to great lengths to “accommodate” the needs of the new workforce – child care centers, special medical education programs, ability-based job placement, affordable health care – all things that he believed were of value to the postwar society as well.

He was the patron sponsor of the integrated service organization for merchant mariners, who operated his ships and suffered terribly during the war.

As Allied victory began to appear certain, he redoubled his plans for the next phase of history. His October 17, 1944, speech “Jobs for All” in New York eloquently described his views:

On this one fact, there is unanimous agreement: every man in the American Forces has the right to come home not only to a job, but to peace. Anything less would be a denial of the true American way of life. Peace means so much more than a cessation of hostilities! Peace is a state of mind. It is based on the sense of security…Often I am classified as a dreamer, particularly when I talk about health insurance. To live abundantly and take part in a productive economy, our people must have health.

Let us be inspired by Henry Kaiser and honor our veterans, honor our home front workers, honor peace.

 

Short link to this article: http://k-p.li/2j78zfH

 

 

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An Experiment Named Fabiola: Health Care Takes Root in Oakland

posted on October 12, 2017

 

Lincoln Cushing
Heritage writer

 

“Fabiola Ends Experiment in ‘Feminism’” -Oakland Tribune, October 16, 1932.

Original Fabiola Hospital and staff, circa 1924, from collection donated by nurse Helen Dahl Collier.

This was the provocative headline for a story about the closing of the Fabiola hospital, originally named for the Roman nurse and matron who founded the world’s first hospital in the fourth century. Henry J. Kaiser would assure funding for the purchase and refurbishing of this building in 1942 (but we’ll get to that later).

The author of the Oakland Tribune story was Nancy Barr Mavity, a well-known crime writer and journalist. She described how the institution was founded by eighteen women in 1876 with provisions that management “must always be in the hands of a woman” and that “every staff doctor must also be a woman“ — provisions which were revolutionary in their day and had been maintained unbroken for 56 years.

Mavity continued:

Photocollage of new Fabiola maternity hospital and Association women, Oakland Tribune, 1923.

“These pioneer women foresaw the need – now one of the most-discussed social problems of medical men and laity – of providing adequate hospital care for those of limited means who were yet not eligible in admittance to the county hospital. With this end in view, it has carried on its work of providing free and reduced-rate care for those who need it, supported by voluntary contributions and by those patients able to pay in full.”

The model of care crafted by the women of the Oakland Homeopathic Hospital and Dispensary Association forecast modern methods and theories long before they became generally accepted. They established the first training school for nurses in the East Bay in 1887; the first district nurse in Oakland, in 1895; the first children’s hospital, the first kitchen under the charge of a trained dietitian; the first ambulance service, contributed by Mrs. J. R. Folger; and the first health insurance program, founded in the 1890s by the mother of Mrs. J.P.H. Dunn (Fabiola Hospital Association’s president for 16 years) as the Fabiola Health Mutual.

Fabiola Hospital, before Permanente purchase and initial remodel, early 1942.

In 1886, Oakland water systems entrepreneur Anthony Chabot donated the broad field at Broadway and Moss Avenue for building the Fabiola Hospital. The expansive turreted facility burned down in 1900 and was replaced with a surgical building (1907) and a 50-bed maternity hospital (1923) at the corner of Moss Avenue and Broadway. Moss was renamed MacArthur Boulevard in 1950.

The hospital that would become the first Permanente (now called Kaiser Permanente) Hospital.

Vacant and unused, the facility had been donated to Merritt Hospital when Fabiola closed its doors in 1933. Henry J. Kaiser personally guaranteed the $350,000 bank loan needed to purchase and refurbish the hospital. While it was being remodeled, Dr. Sidney Garfield contracted for 20 beds at Merritt Hospital. The revived building was dedicated as the Permanente Hospital on August 21, 1942.

Architectural drawing of expansion at the Permanente Foundation Hospital, 1944

In 1961, the original Fabiola building and the adjacent two-story WWII expansion facilities were given a fresh exterior, and the building was demolished in 2005, replaced with a parking lot and patient drop-off and pickup site.

The Kaiser Permanente Fabiola Medical Office Building at 3801 Howe Street was built in 1993, continuing the proud name in Oakland’s health care. The “experiment” from 1876 that shone a light on the importance of providing affordable health care, by and for women, lives on.

Oakland hospital, 1961; Fabiola building and WWII expansion have been upgraded with new siding.

 

 

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Kaiser Permanente and Group Health Cooperative – Working Together Since 1950

posted on March 22, 2017

Lincoln Cushing
Heritage writer

 

“Permanente pediatric clinic at 515 Market St, San Francisco – nurse giving Patricia Nisby, daughter of ILWU Local 10 member Wiley Nisby, a shot.” ILWU Dispatcher, 10/13/1950.

It’s official. Kaiser Permanente has acquired Group Health Cooperative, making Kaiser Permanente Washington our newest region, the first in over 30 years.

Although this merger is brand new, the two organizations began collaborating more than 65 years ago. Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound (they dropped the “of Puget Sound” in 1995), like Kaiser Permanente, was always a mission-driven organization that approached health care in a very different way from traditional fee-for-service medicine.

In fact, few know that our common roots go as far back as 1950, just three years after Group Health Cooperative’s founding.

The relationship began in 1949 when the International Longshore and Warehouse Union [ILWU] approached Kaiser Permanente (then called the Permanente Health Plan) about taking on their membership. Initially it was the 20,000 members in the San Francisco Bay Area, with the understanding that it would soon be all of their members on the rest of the coast, from Seattle down to San Diego. Permanente and the ILWU had been in discussion since 1945. Among the many advantages raised was “The hospital’s facilities are open to all groups with no segregation of patients because of creed or color.” Imagine that.

“Permanente Health Plan Recommended by Oakland Council for Future Contracts,” ILWU Dispatcher, 6/15/1945.

In a 1974 interview, Kaiser Permanente founding physician Sidney Garfield, MD, reflected on this earliest relation between Kaiser Permanente and Group Health Cooperative:

We were rather anxious to get the membership of course, but we couldn’t spread our service that far. We did have a service up in Portland, so that was fine. We got the doctors up there to accept those members, they wanted to do it too. In Los Angeles we had no service. We had it in Fontana, which is quite a distance away, maybe 70 miles from San Pedro. In San Diego we had no service.

[In the Northwest] what we did was arrange with… a prepaid plan up in Seattle, Group Health Association [Cooperative] I think they call it, so we talked them into taking on Longshoremen up there and there was a prepaid plan down in San Diego, a small one, and we talked them into taking on the Longshoremen, and we tackled the Los Angeles, San Francisco, Bay Area and the San Pedro area…

An article in the ILWU newspaper The Dispatcher January 6, 1950 proclaimed: “ILWU Coast Longshore and Shipsclerks Welfare Plan Goes Into Effect.”

The Pacific Maritime Association began making a 3 cents per man hour contribution to the Welfare Fund on December 26, 1949.

Hospital plans go into effect as of February 1, 1950. Permanente Foundation’s Health plan will cover the San Francisco, Los Angeles and Portland – Vancouver areas. There is already a setup in Portland similar to the one in the San Francisco Bay Area. Permanente will open a clinic in Wilmington, Calif., immediately upon the ratification of the Welfare Plan by all locals.

In Seattle, Wash., the Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound made the offer of medical care on the same basis and at the same price as Permanente.

By year’s end, 90 percent of eligible ILWU member had signed up for the plan. It was voluntary; the Permanente Foundation Health Plan was committed to offering “dual choice” to groups, so that no member would feel resentful at having something forced on them.

Group Health Cooperative communicator Pat Bailey adds this point:

This contract for 2,200 ILWU enrollees for Group Health came at a time when the Cooperative was cash-starved. But as already noted, with the new enrollees came pent-up health needs. Before long, the waiting list for hernia operations numbered as many as 50.

“Anne Waybur of the ILWU Research Department interviewed more than 125 longshoremen, clerks, foremen and their wives in San Pedro, Calif. to find out what they think of the Permanente Health Plan coverage and service.” The Dispatcher, 1/5/1951.

It’s hard to overstate the deep impact that this contractually-negotiated benefit made in the lives of the ILWU members.

When the plan began, there was a big rush for treatment of such illnesses as hernias and hemorrhoids, conditions the men had suffered with and lived with for many years. They hadn’t been able to pay for medical care on their own. A 1951 brochure produced by the ILWU about the Multiphasic testing examination noted that “…many of our members have not been to the doctor until they practically collapsed on the job.”

A March 10, 1950, article in The Dispatcher put it this way:

“The Welfare Plan is the greatest thing since the hiring hall.” That’s the opinion of D.N. (Lefty) Vaughn, Local 13 longshoreman, hospitalized here under Permanente. Vaughn told Local 13 visitors last week that if it wasn’t for the Welfare Plan he would have had to sell his home in order to pay for the major operation he’s getting for nothing through the Plan.

An editorial three weeks later further explained:

Life can be beautiful if you’re healthy is the way the ad men put it. There’s no doubt they’ve got a point, though it’s oversimplified. Health is no fringe issue, not when you are required to make a choice between an operation which will allow you to go on working and living, and the home you must sell to pay for that operation. Longshoremen no longer have to make such choices. More than one home has been saved since the medical coverage section of the Welfare Plan became effective two months ago.

Kaiser Permanente and Group Health Cooperative– partnering to help working American families get good health care since 1950.

 

Short link to this article: http://k-p.li/2mUqseU
T
hanks to Robin Walker, ILWU archivist, for help with this article.

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