Posts Tagged ‘New York’

Henry Kaiser develops a taste for documentary truth

posted on October 4, 2013

by Lincoln Cushing, Heritage writer

One of Henry J. Kaiser’s first jobs was working in a photography store in Lake Placid, New York at the turn of the century. By his 20s he had saved enough to buy out his employer and spend his winters in Florida selling pictures and photographic supplies. There he learned a valuable lesson about art and human nature.

“What disillusioned me about photography is that people didn’t want to be photographed as they looked. I remember one year I switched to landscape photography and began taking pictures in Daytona Beach for the Florida East Coast Railway. No one liked the pictures, because they were accurate. Later, when I used props and other false things, the pictures sold like hotcakes. That’s when I decided to quit the business. I just couldn’t stand falsifying nature.”

-Quotation from “Kaiser: Pasha of the Pacific,” Parade magazine, February 8, 1958.

Henry J. Kaiser's first photography shop, Lake Placid, NY, circa 1900;  from Henry J. Kaiser: Builder in the Modern American West

Henry J. Kaiser’s first photography shop “Brownell and Kaiser,” Lake Placid, NY, circa 1900; from Henry J. Kaiser: Builder in the Modern American West

Henry Kaiser’s photographic legacy lives on through the University of California’s huge Henry J. Kaiser pictorial collection which contains approximately 75,000 items (photographic prints, negatives, and albums). Some examples of these holdings include “Clarence Smith, yard 3. January 3, 1946,”  “Richmond workers in training class. September 12, 1945,” and “Jack Harris and Geo. Hammond. May 28, 1946.”

Also, see in these pages “the sublime in the mundane,” the photography of Kaiser Industries.


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Physician, Kaiser Permanente President, Ironworker

posted on May 17, 2013

By Lincoln Cushing, Heritage writer

In the long history of Kaiser Permanente, several executives—including Henry J. Kaiser himself—worked their way up from poverty. Clifford Keene, MD, was another. Keene was the first president and CEO of Kaiser Foundation Hospitals and Health Plan. See his story in the May 2013 issue of Hank, the Kaiser Permanente Labor Management Partnership magazine, about Keene’s pride in having both been an ironworker and a surgeon.

He reflected on it when commenting on a successful infant bowel surgery while serving as a cancer specialist at the University of Michigan State Hospital at the end of the 1930s:

“When I was in the army I further developed my interest in bowel surgery, and reconstruction of all kinds, and also in plastic procedures, orthopedic procedures, all of which were an extension of my interest in doing things with my hands. I [had been] a steel worker and it was satisfying to correct things with my hands.”

Here’s a link to U.C. Berkeley’s Regional Oral History Office 1985 interview.

Keene ironworker photos
Ironworkers at Niacet Chemical Company, Niagara Falls, New York, 1928; Cliff Keene second from left. 1929 union card, International Association of Bridge, Ornamental, and Structural Ironworkers. Images courtesy Steve Gilford, from the personal collection of Clifford Keene.


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Iron nurse Dorothea Daniels had a soft spot for nursing students

posted on March 21, 2011

Daniels at right, Lisker second from right, 1950 Permanente Foundation Nursing School capping ceremony in Oakland, California. Note Daniels' Phillips Beth Israel cap.

By Ginny McPartland
Heritage writer 

Read almost anything about Permanente Foundation School of Nursing’s first long-term leader Dorothea Daniels, and a caricature of a stern, tough-shelled, by-the-book and proper nurse comes to mind. Daniels, a product of New York, rattled her students, nurses and many physicians with her exacting demand for perfection in all things related to patient care and protocol.

She made the nurses work and study hard in restrictive conditions and she didn’t hesitate to correct a physician who displeased her. “She came from a different cut of cloth,” wrote John Smillie, MD, in his history of the Permanente Medical Group. “She regarded herself, and I think quite properly, as a peer of any of the doctors she was dealing with.” 

Migrating to California from New York City after the war ended in 1945, Daniels brought to Permanente her solid education (a doctorate in education from New York University) and experience running a nursing school in that city. From 1936 to 1945, Daniels was the director of the Phillips Beth Israel Hospital School of Nursing. 

Daniels imposed strict rules for student lifestyle

Not unlike other nursing schools of the time, Phillips stressed the students’ need to conform to strict standards of behavior, dress and health habits. House mothers hovered over the students to make sure they didn’t misbehave. “Nurses were not permitted to marry while in training, and subsequent marriage was grounds for instant dismissal,” according to the school’s current Web site. 

At Phillips, nursing students worked six days a week and curfews were rigorously enforced. Pupil nurses were disciplined if they stayed out all night. “Dress inspections took place in the dining room, and students were weighed once a week to make sure they did not ‘get too heavy’ since there was a professional necessity for nurses to ‘look well.’ 

Kaiser Foundation School of Nursing in an old hotel building on Piedmont Avenue near the Oakland hospital, 1948 to 1976

“Hospital director Daniels insisted on student nurses who looked healthy and fit, believing that if students were overweight, they could not work hard and take care of patients,” the school historians reported. “There was concern (during the 1930s) that nurses did not get enough exercise and recreation…’” 

Daniels gets support for her view of fitness in a textbook for orienting student nurses in the 1930s: “Curative medicine gives place to preventive medicine, so must (the nurse) be prepared to understand and apply intelligently the principles of prevention…“The nurse of the future must exemplify health, and teach it. Humanity is ready to cast off sickness.” 

Encouraging nurses to spend leisure time wisely

In 1940, Daniels embarked on a study to assess Phillips students’ leisure time activities, including physical activities. “What Ninety Girls Like to Do in Their Free Time,” authored by Daniels, was published in the National League of Nursing Education publication. A softer side of Daniels emerges in her discussion of the study results. 

“These young women (19 to 24 years for age) have developed abilities of discernment and judgment in their avocations as they develop in the school. While they are learning to assume increased responsibility, they seem to be learning how to spend their leisure time more wisely,” she wrote. She said many subscribed to a professional nursing journal, and “The most thorough inspection of the nurses’ quarters never reveals magazines of the ‘true story’ category.” 

The survey results conclude that the younger girls are spending an average of six hours a week on exercise and the older girls 7.3 hours. “Within a short walking distance there is a tennis court, a swimming pool, a roller skating rink and bicycle-riding areas. “Little equipment is necessary. Sport dresses are the only necessary paraphernalia for hiking, bicycle riding, and roller skating…these types of exercise are easy to learn and give one a sense of well-being and feeling of grace,” Daniels wrote. 

Once the anonymous surveys were compiled, Daniels returned them to the students and asked them to send them back with identification so she could: “aid in fulfilling the wishes stated on the papers. We found it possible to send some students to their first legitimate play; and some 25 were sent to concerts. Our physical education director was instructed to work out her program to include activities for which there were expressed preferences.” 

Bringing her ideals to California

Permanente Foundation Nursing School graduation 1951. Dorothea Daniels at far left, Clair Lisker, third from right.

When Daniels came to California, Permanente Foundation hired her as director of nursing in the Oakland hospital. That position grew in 1948 to include the job of director of the nursing school established in 1948. As expected, Daniels incorporated into the school policies many of the ideas she had adopted in New York. 

The first Permanente School of Nursing student handbook, developed in 1948, prescribed the dos and don’ts for students to get along well at the school. “Your ability as a nurse is reflected in the way you keep your room…Students must be in their own room at 10 p.m., and all lights will be out at 10:30 p.m…Guests may be entertained only in the living room between 8 a.m. and 10 p.m. (Exceptions were made if a mother came to visit.) 

“Pre-clinical students will be in the residence at 8 p.m. each day, Monday through Thursday, unless otherwise specified by the director of nurses…Your window shades will be kept drawn at night when the lights are on…Every student is expected to be adequately clothed when going through the halls…Students are expected to be tidy and well groomed at all times…The conduct of the student nurse on and off duty must be such as will not reflect discredit on herself, her chosen profession, nor her school.” 

In a 1961 nursing school report, a revised philosophy of the school was detailed. Revisiting the fitness theme, one stated role of a successful nurse was: “A teacher of healthful living.” A decade later, the Kaiser Foundation Nursing School brochure stated under Personal Qualifications required for admission: “General appearance is one of the considerations in the selection of students. Applicants must weigh within normal limits of the range established for height and structure.” 

Daniels helped students pursue bachelor’s degree

Daniels, at left, as a hospital administrator. Daniels was the first woman to serve as a hospital administrator in the Kaiser Permanente health plan.

Daniels left the school in 1953 to become administrator of the Los Angeles Permanente Foundation Hospital, making her the health plan’s first woman hospital administrator. She later returned to Northern California to take over as administrator at San Francisco Medical Center. Clair Lisker was one of Daniels’ early students who rose within KP hospital nursing administration. In a 2002 oral history, Lisker credits Daniels with “paving the way for all of us. She was in San Francisco, and she was at Sunset in Los Angeles, two major facilities. 

“She was a tremendously powerful woman, intellectually. I don’t ever remember seeing her sit down,” said Lisker. Daniels encouraged her best students to earn a bachelor’s degree in addition to an RN degree, believing that a well-rounded education would ensure a promising future. Lisker was one of those students. 

“Dorothea was encouraging me to go and enroll in Holy Names College in Oakland, which was then down by the lake (Merritt) where the Kaiser building is now,” recalled Lisker. “She wanted me to get the basics, like English 1A and 1B, and whatever else I needed, philosophy…I basically said: ‘I can’t afford it…she said ‘well, what I’ll do is I’ll pay your fee, and I will get reimbursed. I’ll take $5 out of your allowance (stipend) every month.’ ” Lisker remembers $5 being deducted from her stipend once but doesn’t believe Daniels ever claimed the rest of the $30 advanced ($10 per course unit). 

Kind, generous and impeccably dressed

“She was very kind and generous to those student nurses, and for a good student she would find scholarship money for that young lady to go on to get a degree, so (the student) would become a leader in nursing,” Smillie recalled. Avram Yedidia, a health plan leadership pioneer, said of Daniels: “Her dedication to patient care was as unblemished as her uniform, which miraculously never wrinkled.” 

“She wore these white starched uniforms with a little pointy hat with a black band, and a little pleated organdy cap on her head,” Lisker recalled, noting the cap was from the Phillips Beth Israel school. Daniels’ penchant for a proper nurse’s uniform was no doubt formed in her early years in New York. While she was at Phillips, student nurses were required to adhere to strict dress standards. 

The Phillips Web site: “Students wore black stockings, long sleeves, bibs, aprons, ankle length blue-check dresses, tight cuffs and a bishop’s collar. During the senior year, what was black became white: socks, stockings and dresses became the uniform of the professional nurse. Students wore no caps until the senior year.” 

To make sure they got the uniform right, the administration consulted etiquette expert Emily Post on the proper attire for student nurses on an outing. “Hats and gloves were de rigueur on field trips,” Phillips historians reported. 

The memory of Dorothea Daniels, who passed away in 1968, will always be of a woman to be reckoned with. Lisker summed it up: “Dorothea’s (attitude) was: ‘I’m in control. I’m in charge’…But she also had her other (tender) side, which she didn’t display very often…She loved her dog. She brought (Snuffy) to work every day, and the dog slept in a drawer in her desk…She was a wonderful lady, but she was a character.”

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Promise of jobs attracts wartime workers to West Coast shipyards

posted on November 25, 2010

By Ginny McPartland

In the fall of 1942, thousands of New York area workers boarded Kaiser Shipyards recruiting trains in Hoboken, New Jersey, heading for Oregon.  Around the same time, thousands of job seekers were catching trains from the South and the Midwest bound for Richmond, California. Still others uttered a hopeful prayer as they started up their jalopies or farm trucks and headed west. Looking to change their lives for the better, the skilled and unskilled took a chance that the West Coast dream was not an illusion.

They were leaving their hometowns where recovery from the Great Depression was elusive. If they had jobs, the pay was low. Many were deep in debt and saw higher pay in the World War II shipyards as a way to heal their ailing finances. Some were young and saw no future or excitement in their native states.  

Chicago area welders wait for train to Richmond. National Archives photo by Jack Delano.

 Individuals were desperately needed to build ships to help win the war. So it didn’t matter whether you were black or white or Asian or Hispanic – or if you had skills and experience. You could learn on the job, and if you did well, you could improve your position and pay. You didn’t even have to be healthy and strong – and many weren’t. You could seek medical care at the shipyards, and you could purchase the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, affordable comprehensive, prepaid health care for yourself and your family.  

The shipyard life wasn’t all hearts and flowers. Worker housing was inadequate, and communities were overwhelmed with newcomers.  But for many workers, migration to the West Coast opened up a new, optimistic world.  

Mississippi mother of 11 becomes shipyard welder  

Lucille Preston, reared in Clarkesdale, Mississippi (near Memphis, Tennessee), is a case in point. She first went to work on a plantation at age 12 or 13 babysitting for the wealthy owner’s children. Eventually, she cooked for the family every day and served at their elaborate parties. The generous family hosted her wedding when she married a man whose parents worked for the same prominent family.  

When the couple’s six child was on the way, Preston’s husband, Willie, caught the California bug. “My husband just came home one evening and said that there was work in Richmond, California. ‘They’re opening up the Kaiser Shipyard, and I would like to go.’ So I said: ‘Why sure,’ ” Preston told Judith K. Dunning, oral history interviewer for a Bancroft Library project in 1985.*  

Unidentified family awaiting a train in Chicago. National Archives photo by Jack Delano.

Willie sent for Lucille when he got an apartment in the war housing. She set out for Richmond on a train, eight months pregnant, carrying her one-year-old with the other four clinging to her skirt. On the platform, a kind conductor shepherded Lucille and her brood through the crushing crowd onto a car bound for California. From El Paso, Texas, to Richmond, Lucille stood holding the baby while the other children settled at the feet of nearby passengers.  

At Richmond, the Prestons settled in their new home, Lucille gave birth and a month later she was working graveyard at the shipyards and learning how to weld. Willie worked swing shift so the two took turns at parenting.  The couple had five more children over the next decade. After the war, Lucille operated a dress-uniform press at Treasure Island where she worked for 20 years.   

Lucille told Dunning her only regret was that the expense of raising eight sons and three daughters kept her from building her dream house. However, most of her children went to college – one daughter has two master’s degrees –and they all have successful careers.    

Government helps young men launch shipyard careers  

Getting to California from other parts of the country seemed a pipe dream for many would-be welders. Kaiser Shipyard recruiters fronted train fare for many who came across the country with nothing. Workers could pay back the loan when they got their paychecks. For young men 16 to 24, the federal National Youth Administration (NYA), established by Eleanor Roosevelt in 1935, collaborated with the Richmond Kaiser Shipyards to make the impossible dream possible.  

The NYA paid for transportation to California. Once in Richmond, the young men were welcomed at the Richmond War Work Residence Center where they lived in dormitories and received two to four weeks of welder training. The pay for a month was $33.30, minus $22.50 for meals, dental and medical care, work clothes and equipment. After the initial period of “confusion, bewilderment and expense,” the men were placed in shipyard jobs, according to the Richmond Shipyard newsletter “Fore ‘N Aft.” By April 1943, the project had placed 1,500 welders in Richmond yards.  

Diversity reigns in the shipyards  

Throughout the war years, the West Coast shipyards attracted all kinds of people from all over the globe.  There were actors, writers, lawyers, cowboys, farmers, housewives, shopkeepers, and doctors. Some were experienced at building ships and others had never seen one.  

Here’s how the “Fore ‘N Aft” described the work force in April 1944: “We are all kinds of people, as you can tell by listening to us – Texas twang and Brooklyn brogue, down east Yankee and Carolina drawl, along with almost every language on earth from Polish to Swedish, from Syrian to Italian. It takes all kinds of people to build ships, just as it took all kinds to build America. Shoulder to shoulder, we’ll come through together.”  

*Lucille Preston, “A World War II Journey: From Clarkesdale, Mississippi, to Richmond, California, 1942,” an oral history conducted in 1985 by Judith K. Dunning, Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, 1992.  

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